Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Learn word endings with different spellings but the same pronunciation, e.g. -tion, -cian, -sion, -ssion; -ance, -ence.
• Confirm correct choices when representing consonants, e.g. ‘ck’/’k’/’ke’/’que’/’ch’; ‘ch’/’tch’; ‘j’/’dj’/’dje’.
• Continue to learn words, apply patterns and improve accuracy in spelling.
• Further investigate spelling rules and exceptions, including representing unstressed vowels.
• Develop knowledge of word roots, prefixes and suffixes, including recognising variations, e.g. im, in, ir, il; ad, ap, af, al and knowing when to use double consonants.
• Know how to transform meaning with prefixes and suffixes.
• Investigate meanings and spellings of connectives.
• Explore definitions and shades of meaning and use new words in context.
• Explore word origins and derivations and the use of words from other languages.
• Understand changes over time in words and expressions and their use.
• Explore proverbs, sayings and figurative expressions.
Grammar and punctuation
• Identify uses of the colon, semi-colon, parenthetic commas, dashes and brackets.
• Revise different word classes.
• Investigate the use of conditionals, e.g. to express possibility.
• Begin to show awareness of the impact of writers’ choices of sentence length and structure.
• Revise language conventions and grammatical features of different types of text.
• Explore use of active and passive verbs within a sentence.
• Understand the conventions of standard English usage in different forms of writing.
• Distinguish the main clause and other clauses in a complex sentence.
Grammar and punctuation (continued)
• Punctuate speech and use apostrophes accurately.
• Use a wider range of connectives to clarify relationships between ideas, e.g. however, therefore, although.
• Use connectives to structure an argument or discussion.
• Develop grammatical control of complex sentences, manipulating them for effect.
• Develop increasing accuracy in using punctuation effectively to mark out the meaning in complex sentences.
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 6:
Fiction: various genres including science fiction, extended narratives,stories with flashbacks, poetry and plays including imagery.
Non-fiction: instructions, recounts (including biography and autobiography), diaries, journalistic writing, argument and discussion, formal and impersonal writing.
Fiction and poetry
• Develop familiarity with the work of established authors and poets, identifying features which are common to more than one text.
• Consider how the author manipulates the reaction of the reader, e.g. how characters and settings are presented.
• Look for implicit meanings, and make plausible inferences based on more than one point in the text.
• Understand aspects of narrative structure, e.g. the handling of time.
• Analyse the success of writing in evoking particular moods, e.g. suspense.
• Paraphrase explicit meanings based on information at more than one point in the text.
• Comment on writer’s use of language, demonstrating awareness of its impact on the reader.
• Begin to develop awareness that the context for which the writer is writing and the context in which the reader is reading can impact on how the text is understood.
• Take account of viewpoint in a novel, and distinguish voice of author from that of narrator.
• Discuss and express preferences in terms of language, style and themes.
• Articulate personal responses to reading, with close reference to the text.
• Explore how poets manipulate and play with words and their sounds.
• Read and interpret poems in which meanings are implied or multilayered.
• Analyse how paragraphs and chapters are structured and linked.
• Recognise key characteristics of a range of non-fiction text types.
• Explore autobiography and biography, and first and third person narration.
• Identify features of balanced written arguments.
• Compare the language, style and impact of a range of non-fiction writing.
• Distinguish between fact and opinion in a range of texts and other media.
• Plan plot, characters and structure effectively in writing an extended story.
• Manage the development of an idea throughout a piece of writing, e.g. link the end to the beginning.
• Establish and maintain a clear viewpoint, with some elaboration of personal voice.
• Use different genres as models for writing.
• Use paragraphs, sequencing and linking them appropriately to support overall development of the text.
• Use a range of devices to support cohesion within paragraphs.
• Develop some imaginative detail through careful use of vocabulary and style.
• Use the styles and conventions of journalism to write reports on events.
• Adapt the conventions of the text type for a particular purpose.
• Select appropriate non-fiction style and form to suit specific purposes.
• Write non-chronological reports linked to work in other subjects.
• Develop skills of writing biography and autobiography in role.
• Argue a case in writing, developing points logically and convincingly.
• Write a balanced report of a controversial issue.
• Summarise a passage, chapter or text in a given number of words.
• Use IT effectively to prepare and present writing for publication.
Speaking and listening
• Express and explain ideas clearly, making meaning explicit.
• Use spoken language well to persuade, instruct or make a case, e.g. in a debate.
• Vary vocabulary, expression and tone of voice to engage the listener and suit the audience, purpose and context.
• Structure talk to aid a listener’s understanding and engagement.
• Speak confidently in formal and informal contexts.
• Pay close attention in discussion to what others say, asking and answering questions to introduce new ideas.
• Help to move group discussion forward, e.g. by clarifying, summarising.
• Prepare, practise and improve a spoken presentation or performance.
• Convey ideas about characters in drama in different roles and scenarios through deliberate choice of speech, gesture and movement.
• Reflect on variations in speech, and appropriate use of standard English.