Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Investigate the spelling of word-final unstressed vowels, e.g. the unstressed ‘er’ at the end of butter and unstressed ‘ee’ at the end of city.
• Recognise a range of less common letter strings in words which may be pronounced differently.
• Spell and make correct use of possessive pronouns, e.g. their, theirs, my, mine.
• Identify ‘silent’ vowels in polysyllabic words, e.g. library, interest.
• Use effective strategies for learning new spellings and misspelt words.
• Learn spelling rules for words ending in -e and -y, e.g. take/taking, try/tries.
• Know rules for doubling consonants and investigate patterns in the use of single and double consonants, e.g. –full/-ful.
• Investigate spelling patterns for pluralisation, e.g. -s, -es, -y/-ies, -f/-ves.
• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes, recognising that different spelling rules apply for suffixes which begin with vowels and those that begin with consonants.
• Investigate ways of creating opposites, e.g. un-, im- and comparatives, e.g. –er, -est.
• Revise grammatical homophones, e.g. they’re, their, there.
• Use dictionaries efficiently and carry out IT spell checks.
• Identify unfamiliar words, explore definitions and use new words in context.
• Extend understanding of the use of adverbs to qualify verbs, e.g. in dialogue.
• Use a thesaurus to extend vocabulary and choice of words.
• Collect synonyms and opposites and investigate shades of meaning.
• Use known spellings to work out the spelling of related words.
• Identify word roots and derivations to support spelling and vocabulary, e.g. sign, signal, signature.
• Investigate the origin and appropriate use of idiomatic phrases.
Grammar and punctuation
• Learn how dialogue is set out and punctuated.
• Identify prepositions and use the term.
• Understand conventions of standard English, e.g. agreement of verbs.
• Understand the difference between direct and reported speech.
• Investigate clauses within sentences and how they are connected.
Grammar and punctuation (continued)
• Begin to use the comma to separate clauses within sentences and clarify meaning in complex sentences.
• Use apostrophes for both possession and shortened forms.
• Begin to set out dialogue appropriately, using a range of punctuation.
• Use an increasing range of subordinating connectives.
• Explore ways of combining simple sentences and re-ordering clauses to make compound and complex sentences.
• Use pronouns, making clear to what or to whom they refer.
• Practise proofreading and editing own writing for clarity and correctness.
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 5:
Fiction and poetry: novels and longer stories, fables, myths and legends, stories from other cultures, older literature including traditional tales, poetry and plays including film narrative and dramatic conventions.
Non-fiction: instructions, recounts (including biography), persuasion.
Fiction and poetry
• Read widely and explore the features of different fiction genres.
• Provide accurate textual reference from more than one point in a story to support answers to questions.
• Compare the structure of different stories.
• Comment on a writer’s use of language and explain reasons for writer’s choices.
• Begin to interpret imagery and techniques, e.g. metaphor, personification, simile, adding to understanding beyond the literal.
• Discuss metaphorical expressions and figures of speech.
• Identify the point of view from which a story is told.
• Consider how a writer expresses their own point of view, e.g. how characters are presented.
• Read and identify characteristics of myths, legends and fables.
• Compare and evaluate the print and film versions of a novel or play.
• Compare dialogue and dramatic conventions in film narrative.
• Read and perform narrative poems.
• Read poems by significant poets and compare style, forms and themes.
• Look for information in non-fiction texts to build on what is already known.
• Locate information confidently and efficiently from different sources.
• Skim read to gain an overall sense of a text and scan for specific information.
• Develop note-taking to extract key points and to group and link ideas.
• Note the use of persuasive devices, words and phrases in print and other media.
• Explore the features of texts which are about events and experiences, e.g. diaries.
• Understand the use of impersonal style in explanatory texts.
• Read and evaluate non-fiction texts for purpose, style, clarity and organisation.
• Compare writing that informs and persuades.
• Map out writing to plan structure, e.g. paragraphs, sections, chapters.
• Write new scenes or characters into a story, or write from another viewpoint.
• Write own versions of legends, myths and fables, using structures from reading.
• Choose words and phrases carefully to convey feeling and atmosphere.
• Maintain a consistent viewpoint when writing.
• Begin to attempt to establish links between paragraphs using adverbials.
• Write a play-script, including production notes to guide performance.
• Use imagery and figurative language to evoke imaginative response.
• Record ideas, reflections and predictions about books, e.g. in a reading log.
• Draft and write letters for real purposes.
• Use a more specialised vocabulary to match the topic.
• Write non-chronological reports and explanations.
• Write a commentary on an issue, setting out and justifying a personal view.
• Make notes for different purposes, using simple abbreviations and writing ‘in your own words’.
• Understand the use of notes in writing ‘in your own words’.
• Evaluate own and others’ writing.
• Review, revise and edit writing in order to improve it, using IT as appropriate.
Speaking and listening
• Shape and organise ideas clearly when speaking to aid listener.
• Prepare and present an argument to persuade others to adopt a point of view.
• Talk confidently in extended turns and listen purposefully in a range of contexts.
• Begin to adapt non-verbal gestures and vocabulary to suit content and audience.
• Describe events and convey opinions with increasing clarity and detail.
• Recall and discuss important features of a talk, possibly contributing new ideas.
• Ask questions to develop ideas and extend understanding.
• Report back to a group, using notes to present findings about a topic studied. Evaluate what is heard and give reasons for agreement or disagreement.
• Take different roles and responsibilities within a group.
• Convey ideas about characters in drama through deliberate choice of speech, gesture and movement.
• Begin to discuss how and why language choices vary in different situations.