Primary 4 ( English )

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary

• Extend knowledge and use of spelling patterns, e.g. vowel phonemes, double consonants, silent letters, common prefixes and suffixes.

• Confirm all parts of the verb to be and know when to use each one.

• Apply phonic/spelling, graphic, grammatical and contextual knowledge in reading unfamiliar words.

• Identify syllabic patterns in multisyllabic words.

• Spell words with common letter strings but different pronunciations, e.g. tough, through, trough, plough

• Investigate spelling patterns; generate and test rules that govern them.

• Revise rules for spelling words with common inflections, e.g. –ing, –ed, –s.

• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes.

• Match spelling to meaning when words sound the same (homophones), e.g. to/two/too, right/write.

• Use all the letters in sequence for alphabetical ordering.

• Check and correct spellings and identify words that need to be learned.

• Use more powerful verbs, e.g. rushed instead of went.

• Explore degrees of intensity in adjectives, e.g. cold, tepid, warm, hot.

• Look for alternatives for overused words and expressions.

• Collect and classify words with common roots, e.g. invent, prevent.

• Build words from other words with similar meanings, e.g. medicalmedicine.

Grammar and punctuation


• Use knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read with fluency, understanding and expression.

• Identify all the punctuation marks and respond to them when reading.

• Learn the use of the apostrophe to show possession, e.g. girl’sgirls’.

• Practise using commas to mark out meaning within sentences.

• Identify adverbs and their impact on meaning.

• Investigate past, present and future tenses of verbs.

• Investigate the grammar of different sentences: statements, questions and orders.

• Understand the use of connectives to structure an argument, e.g. if, although.

Grammar and punctuation (continued)


• Use a range of end-of-sentence punctuation with accuracy.

• Use speech marks and begin to use other associated punctuation.

• Experiment with varying tenses within texts, e.g. in dialogue.

• Use a wider variety of connectives in an increasing range of sentences.

• Re-read own writing to check punctuation and grammatical sense.


The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 4:

Fiction and poetry: historical stories, stories set in imaginary worlds,

stories from other cultures, real life stories with issues/dilemmas,

poetry and plays including imagery.

Non-fiction: newspapers and magazines, reference texts,

explanations, persuasion including advertisements.

Fiction and poetry

• Extend the range of reading.

• Explore the different processes of reading silently and reading aloud.

• Investigate how settings and characters are built up from details and identify key words and phrases.

• Explore implicit as well as explicit meanings within a text.

• Recognise meaning in figurative language.

• Understand the main stages in a story from introduction to resolution.

• Explore narrative order and the focus on significant events.

• Retell or paraphrase events from the text in response to questions.

• Understand how expressive and descriptive language creates mood.

• Express a personal response to a text and link characters and settings to personal experience.

• Read further stories or poems by a favourite writer, and compare them.

• Read and perform play-scripts, exploring how scenes are built up.

• Explore the impact of imagery and figurative language in poetry, including alliteration and simile, e.g. as … as a ….

• Compare and contrast poems and investigate poetic features.

Reading (continued)


• Understand how points are ordered to make a coherent argument.

• Understand how paragraphs and chapters are used to organise ideas.

• Identify different types of non-fiction text and their known key features.

• Read newspaper reports and consider how they engage the reader.

• Investigate how persuasive writing is used to convince a reader.

• Note key words and phrases to identify the main points in a passage.

• Distinguish between fact and opinion in print and ICT sources.



• Explore different ways of planning stories, and write longer stories from plans.

• Elaborate on basic information with some detail.

• Write character profiles, using detail to capture the reader’s imagination.

• Explore alternative openings and endings for stories.

• Begin to adopt a viewpoint as a writer, expressing opinions about characters or places.

• Begin to use paragraphs more consistently to organise and sequence ideas.

• Choose and compare words to strengthen the impact of writing, including some powerful verbs.

Writing (continued)


• Explore the layout and presentation of writing, in the context of helping it to fit its purpose.

• Show awareness of the reader by adopting an appropriate style or viewpoint.

• Write newspaper-style reports, instructions and non-chronological reports.

• Present an explanation or a point of view in ordered points, e.g. in a letter.

• Collect and present information from non-fiction texts.

• Make short notes from a text and use these to aid writing.

• Summarise a sentence or a paragraph in a limited number of words.


• Use joined-up handwriting in all writing.

Speaking and listening

• Organise ideas in a longer speaking turn to help the listener.

• Vary use of vocabulary and level of detail according to purpose.

• Understand the gist of an account or the significant points and respond to main ideas with relevant suggestions and comments.

• Deal politely with opposing points of view.

• Listen carefully in discussion, contributing relevant comments and questions.

• Adapt the pace and loudness of speaking appropriately when performing or reading aloud.

• Adapt speech and gesture to create a character in drama.

• Comment on different ways that meaning can be expressed in own and others’ talk.

 Frame Work

Primary 1

Primary 2

Primary 3

Primary 4

Primary 5

Primary 6