Primary 1 ( English)

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary

• Hear, read and write initial letter sounds.

• Know the name and most common sound associated with every letter in the English alphabet.

• Identify separate sounds (phonemes) within words, which may be represented by more than one letter, e.g. ‘th’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’.

• Use knowledge of sounds to read and write single syllable words with short vowels.

• Blend to read, and segment to spell, words with final and initial adjacent consonants, e.g. b-ln-d.

• Begin to learn common spellings of long vowel phonemes, e.g. ‘ee’, ‘ai’, ‘oo’.

• Use knowledge of sounds to write simple regular words, and to attempt other words.

• Spell familiar common words accurately, drawing on sight vocabulary.

• Use rhyme and relate this to spelling patterns.

• Recognise common word endings, e.g. -s-ed and -ing.

Grammar and punctuation


• Pause at full stops when reading.

• Identify sentences in a text.

• Know that a capital letter is used for I, for proper nouns and for the start of a sentence.


• Mark some sentence endings with a full stop.

• Write sentence-like structures which may be joined by and.


The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 1:

Fiction and poetry: real life stories, traditional tales from different cultures, fantasy stories, poetry and plays.

Non-fiction: non-chronological report, simple recount, instructions.

Fiction and poetry

• Join in with reading familiar, simple stories and poems. Demonstrate an understanding that one spoken word corresponds with one written word.

• Know that in English, print is read from left to right and top to bottom.

• Read a range of common words on sight.

• Use phonic knowledge to read decodable words and to attempt to sound out some elements of unfamiliar words.

• Read aloud from simple books independently.

• Anticipate what happens next in a story.

• Talk about events in a story and make simple inferences about characters and events to show understanding.

• Recognise story elements, e.g. beginning, middle and end.

• Retell stories, with some appropriate use of story language.

• Talk about significant aspects of a story’s language, e.g. repetitive refrain, rhyme, patterned language.

• Enjoy a range of books, discussing preferences.

• Make links to own experiences.

• Learn and recite simple poems.

• Join in and extend rhymes and refrains, playing with language patterns.


• Read labels, lists and captions to find information.

• Know the parts of a book, e.g. title page, contents.

• Show awareness that texts for different purposes look different, e.g. use of photographs, diagrams, etc.

• Read and talk about own writing.



• Write simple storybooks with sentences to caption pictures.

• Write a sequence of sentences retelling a familiar story or recounting an experience.

• Begin to use some formulaic language, e.g. Once upon a time.

• Compose and write a simple sentence with a capital letter and a full stop.

• Use relevant vocabulary.


• Write for a purpose using some basic features of text type.

• Write simple information texts with labels, captions, lists, questions and instructions for a purpose.

• Record answers to questions, e.g. as lists, charts.


• Develop a comfortable and efficient pencil grip.

• Form letters correctly.

Speaking and listening

• Speak clearly and choose words carefully to express feelings and ideas when speaking of matters of immediate interest.

• Converse audibly with friends, teachers and other adults.

• Show some awareness of the listener through non-verbal communication.

• Answer questions and explain further when asked.

• Speak confidently to a group to share an experience.

• Take turns in speaking.

• Listen to others and respond appropriately.

• Listen carefully to questions and instructions.

• Engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations.

• Note that people speak in different ways for different purposes and meanings.

 Frame Work

Primary 1

Primary 2

Primary 3

Primary 4

Primary 5

Primary 6